Aspect ratios of 1:2 or larger combining two or more photos define a panorama. Smaller panoramas of only 2 images are created in landscape orientation using (Tilt-Shift) TS-E lenses and shifted. Large panoramas are photographed in portrait orientation and through specific camera rotation techniques. Larger panoramas can have three rows of nine images or more per row (depends on lens). Very few images taken at less than 22mp were cropped to create panoramas. Cropping helps focus the eye on the subject rather than unnecessary data that doesn’t compliment the composition. Shifted, rotated or cropped, you won’t find distortion with this perfected process.